Understanding new concepts or subjects

  1. ScienceDirect Topics ( provide concept definitions and subject overviews for researchers who want to expand their knowledge about scholarly and technical terms. Each synopsis provides a series of short, authoritative, excerpts from highly relevant book chapters written by subject matter experts in the field. These topic summaries are derived from Elsevier encyclopedias, reference works and books.
  2. eLS (formerly known as the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences) ( is a monthly-updating reference work containing over 5,000 specially commissioned, peer-reviewed and citable articles written by leaders in the field. It offers comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the life sciences for students, lecturers and researchers alike.

Guidelines for scientific research

  1. Uri Alon. How to choose a good sientific problem. Molecular Cell 2009, 35(6):726-728. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.013; PMID:19782018


  1. Reading the book Bioinformatics Data Skills is recommended for mastering basic skills of bioinformatics.
  2. R programming language is recommended for creating pulication-quality figures. RStudio makes R easy to use. The R manuals, CRAN task views, and Bioconductor workflows are good resources for learning and using R. ggplot2 is a system for declaratively creating graphics with rich extensions.


  1. The Merriam-Webster dictionary and thesaurus (synonyms and antonyms).
  2. Linggle: Choosing words based on frequency.
  3. Grammarly: Grammar checking.